西方谚语起源(英语谚语的形成及渊源)

1.英语谚语的形成及渊源

起源于 民间口语,也有一部分源于 文化典籍或 宗教文献。

它们源远流长,在历史长河里兼收并蓄,得到不断的丰富和发展。经过千锤百炼,终成为简洁生动、意味深长、富有哲理的英语的精华。

本文主要从 民间口语、文化典籍和 宗教文献3 个方面对英语谚语的 起源进行了探讨,旨在揭示谚语所反映的社会的发展进程、人民群众的思想观念、价值取向及其超越时空的价值和意义。恩格斯在《自然辩证法:劳动在从猿到人转变过程中的作用》中指出:“语言是从劳动当中并和劳动一起产生出来的⋯⋯”[1 ]语言是一种社会存在物,是随着人类的实践而形成发展起来的交流系统,是人类社会实践的共同创造物。

作为日常口语的一部分,谚语的 起源十分悠久。其源头是人类先民的生产劳动,他们的实践、感知和经验,经过漫长的历史进程,不断积累、概括和提炼,并随着社会的发展和人们活动范围的扩大,传播开来。

始于 民间口语的英语谚语,在传流的过程中,伴随文字的出现,逐渐进入到书面文献中。 文化典籍中的“雅谚”有些可追溯到民间流传的“俗谚”,有些已不可考,但萌生于 民间口语或是由某些大众化说法提炼而来应是不争的事实。

本文主要从 民间口语、文化典籍、宗教文献3 个方面对英语谚语的 起源进行探讨,旨在揭示谚语所反映的人类生产、生活历程和超越时空的价值和意义。一、民间口语谚语是在群众中流传的固定语句,用简单通俗的话反映出深刻的道理。

英语谚语绝大多数来自民间,是人民群众生活经验的总结,凝结着人民大众的智慧。英语谚语中有大量关于农业生产、气象、渔牧、狩猎的谚语,如气象谚语、节令谚语、农事要诀等,通常称为“农谚”。

Evening red and morning grey are the signs of a fineday. (晚霞红,晨雾蒙,天会晴。) A red sky at night is the shepherds'delight . (向晚天发红,羊倌喜盈盈。)

Rain from the east ; wet two days at the least . (风雨东方起,至少两天雨。) 这几个谚语反映的都是气象常识,如热冷的交替,晚霞、晨雾主晴等,都是从事农业生产的先民长期的经验积累形成的对天气的认识。

Ill weeds grow fast . (杂草长得快。) Out of old field comes new corn. (老田出新谷。)

A year of snow , a year of plenty. (瑞雪兆丰年。) After a rainy winter follows fruitful spring. (今冬雨水足,来春果满枝。)

这几条谚语反映了人民群众对田地、庄稼特点的认识,还表达了他们对五谷丰登的祈盼。先民们生产工具落后,生活条件恶劣,随时面临着毒蛇猛兽的侵袭和疾病带来的死亡,加之当时交通不便,隔山隔水,交流少,活动范围窄,所以“家”的观念在人们心中非常强。

面对严酷的大自然,他们唯有在“家”里才能得到慰藉,找到安全感。下面的几条谚语正是“家”或乡土观念的反映。

East or west , home is best . (东好西好,家里最好。) There is no place like home. (没有什么地方能像家里一样。)

Better at home than a mile away from it . (在家万般好,出门时时难。) Every one seeks his own house. (家是自己的好先民们除从事繁重的农业生产劳动外,还会打猎或捕鱼以弥补生活的匮乏,这方面的经验在英语谚语中也有所反映。

Hunger drives the wolf out of the woods. (饥饿引狼出森林。) Great fish are caught in great waters. (要抓大鱼,就下大海。)

The fish will soon be caught that nibbles at the everybait . (爱咬钩的鱼逃不掉。) A bird in hand is worth two in the bush. (一鸟在手胜过二鸟在林。)

An old fox is not easily snared. (老狐狸难上圈套。) Two dogs will kill a lion. (两狗可杀一狮。)

If you run after two hares , you will catch neither.(一人追二兔,难免两手空。) 人类早期的生产劳动,由于生产工具原始,完全靠体力,靠长时间的辛苦劳作,翻土、播种、收割都有时间、季节限制,耽误不得,正所谓“农时不可误”;又由于渐渐意识到生命无常,生命短暂,因而感叹时光短促、劝人珍惜时间的英语谚语不少。

All time is no time when it is gone. (光阴一去不复返。) Time is money. (时间就是金钱。)

Time flies. (时光如梭。) 早期的人类势单力薄,无论是农耕或狩猎,都以群体出动、集体协作为主,有些英谚正是反映集思广益、共同协作这方面生活的。

So many heads so many wits. (三个臭皮匠,抵个诸葛亮。) Many hands make light work. (人手多,好办事。)

Two eyes see more than one. (两只眼睛比一只眼睛看得清。) Drop by drop the oceans are filled ; stone by stonethe walls are built . (涓滴之水汇成海;一石一石筑成墙。)

英语属于印欧语系,印欧语系的原创型文化滥觞于古希腊文化。古希腊所处的地理位置正居于尼罗河、两河、小亚细亚和南欧之“要冲”,生活在希腊半岛和爱琴海诸岛的先民从海中取食,靠海吃海,久而久之,便形成了海洋型文化特点。

后来的英伦三岛又为大海环抱,受之于古希腊的海洋文化因子得以传承、光大。英语谚语中有大量涉及海上航行、经风受雨、捕鱼捉蟹的内容,这正是英语民族,以及整个西语民族地理位置和海洋型文化的反映。

In a 。

2.关于英语谚语起源与发展的文章

ARCHER TAYLORTHE ORIGINS OF THE PROVERB*关于英语谚语起源与发展的文章!THE definition of a proverb is too difficult to repay the undertaking; and should we fortunately combine in a single definition all the essential elements and give each the proper emphasis, we should not even then have a touchstone. An incommunicable quality tells us this sentence is proverbial and that one is not. Hence no definition will enable us to identify positively a sentence as proverbial. Those who do not speak a language can never recognize all its proverbs, and similarly much that is truly proverbial escapes us in Elizabethan and older English. Let us be content with recognizing that a proverb is a saying current among the folk. At least so much of a definition is indisputable, and we shall see and weigh the significance of other elements later.The origins of the proverb have been little studied. We can only rarely see a proverb actually in the making, and any beliefs we have regarding origins must justify themselves as evident or at least plausible. Proverbs are invented in several ways: some are simple apothegms and platitudes elevated to proverbial dignity, others arise from the symbolic or metaphoric use of an incident, still others imitate already existing proverbs, and some owe their existence to the condensing of a story or fable. It is convenient to distinguish as "learned" proverbs those with a long literary history. This literary history may begin in some apt Biblical or classical phrase, or it may go back to a more recent source. Such "learned" proverbs differ, however, in only this regard from other proverbs. Whatever the later history may be, the manner of ultimate invention of all proverbs, "learned" or "popular," falls under one or another of the preceding heads.It is not proper to make any distinction in the treatment of "learned" and "popular" proverbs. The same problems exist for all proverbs with the obvious limitation that, in certain cases, historical studies are greatly restricted by the accidents of preservation. We can ordinarily trace the "learned" proverb down a long line of literary tradition, from the classics or the Bible through the Middle Ages to the present, while we may not be so fortunate with every "popular" proverb. For example, Know thyself may very well have been a proverb long before it was attributed to any of the seven wise men or was inscribed on the walls of the temple of Delphic Apollo. Juvenal was nearer the truth when he said it came from Heaven: "E caelo descendit " (Sat., xi, 27). Yet so far as modern life is concerned, the phrase owes its vitality to centuries of bookish tradition. St. Jerome termed Don't look a gift horse in the mouth a common proverb, when he used it to refer to certain writings which he had regarded as free will offerings and which critics had found fault with: "Noli (ut vulgare est proverbium) equi dentes inspicere donati." We cannot hope to discover whether the modern proverb owes its vitality to St. Jerome or to the vernacular tradition on which he was drawing. St. Jerome also took The wearer best knows where the shoe wrings him from Plutarch, but we may conjecture that this proverb, too, was first current on the lips of the folk. Obviously the distinction between "learned" and "popular" is meaningless and is concerned merely with the accidents of history.PROVERBIAL APOTHEGMSOften some simple apothegm is repeated so many times that it gains proverbial currency: Live and learn; Mistakes will happen; Them as has gets; Enough is enough; No fool like an old fool; Haste makes waste; Business is business; What's done's done. Characteristic of such proverbs is the absence of metaphor. They consist merely of a bald assertion which is recognized as proverbial only because we have heard it often and because it can be applied to many different situations. It is ordinarily difficult, if not impossible, to determine the age of such proverbial truisms. The simple truths of life have been noted in every age, and it must not surprise us that one such truth has a long recorded history while another has none. It is only chance, for example, that There is a time for everything has a long history in English,--Shakespeare used it in the Comedy of Errors, ii, 2: "There's a time for all things,"--and it is even in the Bible: "To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven" (Omnia tempus habent, et suis spatiis transeunt universa sub caelo, Eccles. iii, I), while Mistakes will happen or If you want a thing well done, do it yourself have, on the contrary, no history at all.The full text of this article is published in De 。

3.谚语的来源

There is a skeleton in every house. Something to annoy and to be kept out of sight. 1 That is my skeleton—my trouble, the “crook in my lot.” 2 A woman had an only son who obtained an appointment in India, but his health failed, and his mother longed for his return. One day he wrote a letter to his mother, with this strange request “Pray, mother, get someone who has no cares and troubles to make me six shirts.” The widow hunted in vain for such a person, and at length called upon a lady who told her to go with her to her bedroom. Being there she opened a closet which contained a human skeleton. “Madam,” said the lady, “I try to keep my trouble to myself, but every night my husband compels me to kiss that skeleton.” She then explained that the skeleton was once her husband's rival, killed in a duel. “Think you I am happy?” The mother wrote to her son, and the son wrote home: “I knew when I gave the commission that everyone had his cares, and you, mother, must have yours. Know then that I am condemned to death, and can never return to England. Mother, mother! there is a skeleton in every house.”。

4.谚语的由来

所谓“谚语”是广泛流传于中华民族民间的言简意赅的短语,多数反映了劳动人民的生活实践经验,而且一般都是经过口头传下来的。它多是口语形式的通俗易懂的短句或韵语。谚语跟成语一样都是语言整体中的一部分,可以增加语言的鲜明性和生动性。但谚语和名言是不同的,谚语是劳动人民的生活实践经验,而名言是名人说的话。

2011年5月23日,谚语(沪谚)经国务院批准列入第三批国家级非物质文化遗产名录。2014年11月11日,谚语(陕北民谚)经国务院批准列入第四批国家级非物质文化遗产名录。

5.谚语的来源

There is a skeleton in every house. Something to annoy and to be kept out of sight. 1

That is my skeleton—my trouble, the “crook in my lot.” 2

A woman had an only son who obtained an appointment in India, but his health failed, and his mother longed for his return. One day he wrote a letter to his mother, with this strange request “Pray, mother, get someone who has no cares and troubles to make me six shirts.” The widow hunted in vain for such a person, and at length called upon a lady who told her to go with her to her bedroom. Being there she opened a closet which contained a human skeleton. “Madam,” said the lady, “I try to keep my trouble to myself, but every night my husband compels me to kiss that skeleton.” She then explained that the skeleton was once her husband's rival, killed in a duel. “Think you I am happy?” The mother wrote to her son, and the son wrote home: “I knew when I gave the commission that everyone had his cares, and you, mother, must have yours. Know then that I am condemned to death, and can never return to England. Mother, mother! there is a skeleton in every house.”

西方谚语起源

转载请注明出处文秀网 » 西方谚语起源(英语谚语的形成及渊源)

文化

跟诚信有关的谚语(关于诚信的谚语,名言有哪些)

阅读(7)

本文主要为您介绍跟诚信有关的谚语,内容包括关于诚信的谚语,名言,与诚信有关的谚语大全,有关诚信的谚语。民无信不立.孔子人而无信,不知其可也孔子2、君子忧道不忧贫. 孔子3、言不信者,行不果.墨子4、诚信者,天下之结也.墨子5、诚者,天之

文化

风的谚语一级二级(风速歌谚语是哪些)

阅读(6)

本文主要为您介绍风的谚语一级二级,内容包括一到十二级风的俗语,风速歌谚语是哪些,一至十二级风顺口溜。零级烟柱直冲天;一级轻烟随风偏;二级轻风吹脸面;三级叶动红旗展;四级枝摇飞纸片;五级带叶小树摇;六级举伞步行难;七级迎风走不便;八级风吹

文化

良善与恶的谚语(关于良善的名言名句)

阅读(6)

本文主要为您介绍良善与恶的谚语,内容包括关于良善的名言名句,求中国的关于善良与邪恶的名言警句、俗语、谚语,关于扬善抑恶的谚语或俗语。1.善良的心就是太阳。雨果2.一颗好心抵得过黄金。 莎士比亚3.人之为善,百善而不足。 杨万里4.利人的

文化

俗话与谚语的区别(俗语与谚语的区别)

阅读(7)

本文主要为您介绍俗话与谚语的区别,内容包括俗语与谚语的区别,谚语与俗语的区别,《谚语和俗语的区别》。“俗语”是长期以来为人们所熟知和惯用的定型词组或短语,是一种形式简练、意义精辟、内容丰富而材料特殊的语言。俗语包括谚语、格言、

文化

一枝独秀的谚语上一句(歇后语一枝独秀的前边一句是什么)

阅读(4)

本文主要为您介绍一枝独秀的谚语上一句,内容包括歇后语“一枝独秀”的前边一句是什么,歇后语一枝独秀的前边一句是什么,一枝独秀的上一句是什么。歇后语“一枝独秀”的前边一句是早开的红梅。早开的红梅一枝独秀这个歇后语的意思是:其他花都

文化

谚语分哪3种(谚语分哪几类)

阅读(5)

本文主要为您介绍谚语分哪3种,内容包括谚语分哪几类,谚语分哪几类,谚语一共有几种类型。1. 谚语的分类:气象、农业、卫生、社会、学习、歇后语、 俗语。2. 简介:谚语是广泛流传于民间的言简意赅的短语,多数反映了劳动人民的生

文化

爱护地球低碳生活谚语(热爱地球的谚语)

阅读(6)

本文主要为您介绍爱护地球低碳生活谚语,内容包括热爱地球的谚语,关于环保的谚语,关于环境保护的谚语。关爱生命健康,倡导环保时尚。绿色与生命时时相伴,环境与健康息息相关。环境与生命共存,环保与健康同在。百业要兴,环保先行。失去生态平衡,人

文化

关于毕业后的英语谚语(100句英语谚语)

阅读(4)

本文主要为您介绍关于毕业后的英语谚语,内容包括100句英语谚语,关于校园生活的英语谚语,关于学习的50个英语谚语,简短,带汉译,谢谢。1. Never say die.永不言败。2.No cross, no crown.不经历风雨,怎么见彩虹。3.New wine in

文化

粤语谚语把握机会(15句关于把握机会的名言)

阅读(4)

本文主要为您介绍粤语谚语把握机会,内容包括15句关于把握机会的名言、,说要把握机会的谚语,说要把握机会的谚语。一个明智的人总是抓住机遇,把它变成美好的未来。 托·富勒 君子藏器于身,待时而动。 佚名 愚蠢的行动,能使人陷于贫困;投合时机的

文化

形容将军敢打皇帝不敢打的谚语(民间的谜语谚语歇后语)

阅读(3)

本文主要为您介绍形容将军敢打皇帝不敢打的谚语,内容包括形容开战前带领军队的大将被皇帝处死的成语或俗语,形容开战前带领军队的大将被皇帝处死的成语或俗语,求成语:说士兵只听将军的命令而不听皇帝的命令。****青草结成一间屋,兄弟生来十五

文化

走出去引进来什么谚语(引进来和走出去是什么的基本途径)

阅读(3)

本文主要为您介绍走出去引进来什么谚语,内容包括引进来和走出去是什么意思,有关“走出去引进来”的诗句在线等,引进来和走出去是什么的基本途径。全面提高对外开放水平,必须坚持“引进来”和“走出去”相结合的基本战略“引进来”的含义:“引

文化

谚语有什么用(谚语有什么作用)

阅读(5)

本文主要为您介绍谚语有什么用,内容包括谚语有什么作用,谚语有什么用,谚语有什么用。在中国悠久的历史长河中,作为一种文化形式的谚语在语言表达中发挥着独特的作用。谚语一般凝练、通俗,富含哲理,因此,即便是没有念过多少书的人

文化

跟诚信有关的谚语(关于诚信的谚语,名言有哪些)

阅读(7)

本文主要为您介绍跟诚信有关的谚语,内容包括关于诚信的谚语,名言,与诚信有关的谚语大全,有关诚信的谚语。民无信不立.孔子人而无信,不知其可也孔子2、君子忧道不忧贫. 孔子3、言不信者,行不果.墨子4、诚信者,天下之结也.墨子5、诚者,天之

文化

风的谚语一级二级(风速歌谚语是哪些)

阅读(6)

本文主要为您介绍风的谚语一级二级,内容包括一到十二级风的俗语,风速歌谚语是哪些,一至十二级风顺口溜。零级烟柱直冲天;一级轻烟随风偏;二级轻风吹脸面;三级叶动红旗展;四级枝摇飞纸片;五级带叶小树摇;六级举伞步行难;七级迎风走不便;八级风吹

文化

良善与恶的谚语(关于良善的名言名句)

阅读(6)

本文主要为您介绍良善与恶的谚语,内容包括关于良善的名言名句,求中国的关于善良与邪恶的名言警句、俗语、谚语,关于扬善抑恶的谚语或俗语。1.善良的心就是太阳。雨果2.一颗好心抵得过黄金。 莎士比亚3.人之为善,百善而不足。 杨万里4.利人的

文化

俗话与谚语的区别(俗语与谚语的区别)

阅读(7)

本文主要为您介绍俗话与谚语的区别,内容包括俗语与谚语的区别,谚语与俗语的区别,《谚语和俗语的区别》。“俗语”是长期以来为人们所熟知和惯用的定型词组或短语,是一种形式简练、意义精辟、内容丰富而材料特殊的语言。俗语包括谚语、格言、

文化

一枝独秀的谚语上一句(歇后语一枝独秀的前边一句是什么)

阅读(4)

本文主要为您介绍一枝独秀的谚语上一句,内容包括歇后语“一枝独秀”的前边一句是什么,歇后语一枝独秀的前边一句是什么,一枝独秀的上一句是什么。歇后语“一枝独秀”的前边一句是早开的红梅。早开的红梅一枝独秀这个歇后语的意思是:其他花都

文化

谚语分哪3种(谚语分哪几类)

阅读(5)

本文主要为您介绍谚语分哪3种,内容包括谚语分哪几类,谚语分哪几类,谚语一共有几种类型。1. 谚语的分类:气象、农业、卫生、社会、学习、歇后语、 俗语。2. 简介:谚语是广泛流传于民间的言简意赅的短语,多数反映了劳动人民的生

文化

写谚语的格式是怎样的(写名言的格式怎么写)

阅读(6)

本文主要为您介绍写谚语的格式是怎样的,内容包括钢笔练字本上写古诗和谚语的格式是什么要快,写名言的格式怎么写,英语中说谚语格式是什么。题记引用名人名言的格式:一般题记的格式是在题目下面写上一句话,后面再加上破折号,写上题记两个字。一